Early diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antimicrobials are keys to better clinical outcomes. For some infections, the clinical outcome may be worse in patients receiving discordant therapy (i. e., treatment with an antibiotic to which the strain is resistant).

Nearly all children with ear infections recover, although recurrent infections can lead to hearing loss and delayed language development. In children in industrialized nations, pneumococcal pneumonia may result in hospitalization, though the mortality rate is low. In children who have bacteremia without a focus, 10% will develop focal complications, 3% to 6% will develop meningitis, and about 1% will die. Of children younger than 5 years of age with pneumococcal meningitis, about 5% will die and 25% of survivors may have long-term problems such as hearing loss or learning disability. Sequelae in patients with meningitis are associated with the presence of coma and low CSF glucose level (<0.6 mmol/L).

The incidence of IPD and mortality resulting from bacterial infections in sickle cell disease has been declining. Probably this is a result of penicillin prophylaxis, new vaccines and vaccination strategies, and improved medical care.

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  • Category: Infectious diseases